Eco-Design Principles

by Politecnico di Milano

Design for Disassembly

Overall architecture

Shape of components and parts

Accessibility of joints

Energy Consumption Reduction

Minimise energy consumption at the use phase

Use materials with low energy consumption at the production phase

Material Consumption Reduction

Minimise material input

Reduce scraps and discards

Minimise material consumption during the use phase

Material Life Extension

Adopt a cascade approach

Use materials with the most efficient recycling characteristics

Minimise the overall number of different incompatible materials

Facilitate composting, use combustion

Product Life Optimisation

Intensify use phase

Design for reliability

Facilitate upgrading and adaptability

Facilitate maintenance

Facilitate re-use and repair

Resources Conservation & Toxicity Reduction

Select renewable & biocompatible materials

Select renewable energy sources

Select non toxic/harmful materials & energy sources



© 2015 MISMIR®

Reducing and facilitating operations of disassembly and separation


Eco-Ideas Board by Politecnico di Milano
Overall architecture:
Prioritise the disassembly of toxic and dangerous components or materials
Adopt modular structures
Divide the product into easily separable and easy-to-handle sub-assemblies
Minimise hierarchically dependent connections among components
Shape of components and parts:
Avoid difficult-to-handle components
Shape and accessibility of joints:
Avoid joint systems that require simultaneous interventions for opening
Minimise the overall number of fasteners
Minimise the overall number of different fastener types

Minimising energy consumption during material production, manufacturing and use phase


Eco-Design Board by Politecnico di Milano
Minimise energy consumption during use phase
Use highly efficient energy conversion systems
Use highly efficient engines
Use highly efficient energy power transmission
Use passive energy systems
Design products with energy recovery systems
Use sensors to adapt energy consumption in relation to contextual conditions
Design systems allowing different energy consumption modes according to different functioning conditions/need
Incorporate automatic switch-off mechanisms into the product
Define the default working conditions as to consume as less energy as possible
Design systems that can benefit from the passive use of energies
Minimise energy consumption during the material production and manufacturing phases
Prefer materials with low energy consumption in pre-production
Prefer processing technologies with low energy consumption

Material Consumption Reduction


Eco-Design Board by Politecnico di Milano
Minimise material input
Dematerialise the product or some of its components
Digitalise the product or some of its components
Miniaturise
Reduce components thickness
Minimise scraps and discards in the manufacturing phase
Select manufacturing processes that reduce scraps and discarded materials
Minimise packaging
Avoid packaging
Apply materials only where absolutely necessary
Design the package to be part of the product
Minimise material consumption during the use phase
Design for the efficient consumption of materials/resources
Design for the reusing materials/resources in a cascade approach
Use sensors to adjust materials/resources consumption according to different conditions

Material Life Extension


Eco-Design Board by Politecnico di Milano
Adopt a cascade approach
Facilitate recycling of materials in components with lower mechanical requirements
Facilitate recycling of materials in components with lower aesthetical requirements
Facilitate energy recovery from materials throughout combustion
Select materials with the most efficient recycling characteristics
Select materials that after recycling easily recover the original performance characteristics
Avoid composite materials or, when necessary, choose easily recyclable ones
Adopt geometrical solutions like ribbing to increase polymer stiffness instead of using reinforcing fibres
Prefer thermoplastic polymers to thermosetting
Design taking into consideration the secondary use of the materials once recycled
Facilitate end-of-life collection and transportation
Minimise overall weight
Design products whose volume can be reduced
Identify materials
Codify different materials to facilitate their identification
Provide additional information about the material’s age, number of times it has been recycled and additives used
Minimise the overall number of different incompatible materials
Reduce the overall number of materials
Facilitate cleaning
Avoid unnecessary coating finishing
Avoid irremovable coating materials
Facilitate removal of coating materials
Avoid adhesives or choose adhesive compatible with materials to be recycled
Prefer coloured polymers, rather than surface painting
Avoid using additional materials for marking or codification
Mark and codify materials during moulding
Facilitate composting, use combustion
Avoid combining non-degradable materials with products that are going to be composted
Facilitate the separation of non-degradable materials
Select high energy materials for products that are going to be incinerated
Avoid materials that emit dangerous substances during incineration
Avoid additives that emit dangerous substances during incineration
Facilitate the separation of materials that might compromise the efficiency of combustion

Extend product and components lifespan


Eco-Design Board by Politecnico di Milano
Intensify use phase
Design products and services for shared use
Design multifunctional products
Design for reliability
Reduce overall number of components
Simplify products
Facilitate upgrading and adaptability
Enable and facilitate software upgrading
Enable and facilitate hardware upgrading
Design modular and dynamically configurable products to facilitate their adaptability to individuals’ cultural and physical changes
Design products that are upgradeable and adaptable onsite
Facilitate maintenance
Simplify access to and disassembly of components to be maintained Facilitate access for cleaning
Facilitate the substitution of short-lifespan components
Equip the product with easily usable tools for maintenance
Equip products with diagnostic and/or auto-diagnostic systems to forecast malfunctions
Design products for easy onsite maintenance
Equip products with maintenance tools/instructions
Facilitate repair
Facilitate disassembly and replacement of easily damageable components
Facilitate re-use
Design modular products to facilitate components’ replacement
Design refillable and re-usable packaging
Design products for secondary use

Resources Conservation & Toxicity Reduction


Eco-Design Board by Politecnico di Milano
Select renewable and biocompatible materials
Use renewable materials
Avoid strategic and critical materials (the ones with a limited stock)
Use scraps and discarded materials from manufacturing processes Use materials from disposed products
Use recycled materials
Use biodegradable materials
Select non toxic/harmful materials
Avoid/minimise the use of toxic/harmful materials
Avoid materials that emit toxic or harmful substances during the material production phase
Avoid materials that emit toxic or harmful substances during the manufacturing phase
Avoid additives that emit toxic or harmful substances
Avoid processes or surface treatments that emit toxic or harmful substances
Avoid materials that emit toxic or harmful substances during the use phase
Design products that do not consume toxic and harmful materials in the use phase
Avoid materials that emit toxic or harmful substances during the disposal phase
Select non toxic/harmful energy sources
Select energy sources that reduce dangerous emissions during the pre-production and production phases
Select energy sources that reduce dangerous emissions during the distribution phases
Select energy sources that reduce dangerous emissions during the use phases
Select energy sources that reduce dangerous residues and toxic and harmful waste